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Monitoring of production equipment

Monitoring of production equipment is a critical aspect of maintaining efficient manufacturing operations. Machine failures can disrupt the entire production process, leading to significant losses for companies. Traditionally, maintenance approaches focused on rapid disaster recovery rather than prevention. However, with the increasing complexity of technological processes, unplanned failures have become costly and unaffordable. To address this, concepts like Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) have been developed to minimize equipment failures and downtime through preventive measures.
TPM is a maintenance method designed to enhance productivity, reliability, and efficiency in the workplace. The success of TPM implementation is often measured using the Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) metric. OEE is a standard measure of production productivity, representing the percentage of productive time during manufacturing. A 100% OEE rating indicates high-quality, uninterrupted production at maximum speed. Improving productivity through visualization, quantification, and systematic elimination of production losses is the goal of using OEE. Many manufacturing enterprises widely employ the OEE model as a key indicator of overall equipment performance, enabling them to enhance efficiency.
The overall efficiency of equipment, as measured by OEE, consists of three components: Availability, Performance, and Quality. Availability considers all events that cause planned production to halt for a significant period. It is calculated as the ratio of execution time to planned production time. Unscheduled and scheduled shutdowns both affect availability. Unscheduled shutdowns occur due to unforeseen events, while scheduled shutdowns are planned maintenance or adjustment periods.
Performance takes into account the speed of the production process and is calculated as the ratio of net production rate to the planned rate. Performance losses can be caused by short-term shutdowns and slow work cycles. Short-term shutdowns refer to brief equipment stoppages, while slow cycles indicate periods when equipment operates below the required speed.
Quality considers the proportion of good quality products compared to the total quantity produced. It includes products that meet quality standards and those that require improvement. Quality losses are divided into two categories: production failures and startup failures. Production failures refer to defects that occur during stable production, such as issues with weight, labeling, compliance, or packaging. Startup failures are defects that arise during the initial phase of production.
The application of TPM and OEE programs aims to reduce the Six Big Losses, which are common causes of productivity loss in manufacturing:
Equipment failure: Planned equipment downtime due to failures, tool breakdowns, lack of operators or materials, etc.

  • Setup and adjustment: Equipment downtime for readjustment, changeover, cleaning, maintenance, and quality checks.
  • Small stoppages and idling: Brief equipment shutdowns caused by material jams, incorrect settings, cleaning, and obstructed product flow.
  • Reduced speed: Equipment operating slower than the optimal speed due to worn-out equipment, poor-quality materials, lack of operator experience, etc.
  • Startup defects: Defective parts produced during equipment startup or changeovers.
  • Process defects: Defective parts produced during stable production due to operator errors, incorrect settings, or batch expiration.
    Implementing TPM and OEE programs based on the TPM philosophy has yielded significant improvements in production processes and performance indicators.
    Companies have achieved positive results through a combination of OEE and Six Big Losses measurement, preventive maintenance, standardized work procedures, error prevention measures, and personnel training.
    By adopting TPM principles and focusing on OEE, manufacturing companies can effectively monitor production equipment, minimize failures, optimize performance, and drive overall efficiency.

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